Ghana

2G Population Coverage96.8%
3G Population Coverage80%
4G Population Coverage34.9%
OTT PolicyPress release May 2016
OTT RegulationNo
OTT TaxNo
SIM Card Registrations2010 and re-registration in 2017
Coverage Source: ITU Database July 2018
Map Source: Collins Bartholomew Mobile Coverage Explorer dataset

The National Communications Authority issued a press release on OTT apps in May 2016. The press release stated that the Authority intends to issue regulations on OTT apps due to the “lack of regulations also poses a threat to security and safety because of the very nature of the communications sector”. The press release acknowledged the role of OTT apps in driving data usage, but also stated that operator revenues were negatively affected by OTTs and that the situation had to be assessed.

 In April 2019, the NCA released draft Quality of Service regulations that include QOS measurements for OTTs. However, the QOS measurements for OTT “voice services” seem to be a copy and paste from traditional fixed line and mobile QOS indicators and cannot be implemented.

The Ghanaian mobile market is dominated by MTN with around 49% of subscribers as of December 2018.  MTN provides detailed financial information to the public as part of its MTN Group filings, which are expressed in South African Rand. The volatility in revenues and costs expressed in South African Rand is due to exchange rate fluctuations. In local currency (Cedis), revenues for MTN Ghana have increased steadily (Figure 2). 

MTNs EBITDA margin hovers around a very healthy 37-41% for the past six years.  Data, digital and fintech revenue has been growing strongly and made up 110% of voice and SMS revenues in 2018 from 11% at the beginning of 2013. 

Generally Ghana has good mobile broadband network coverage with 80% 3G and 35% 4G in 2018. MNOs are thus able to compensate for any losses in voice and SMS revenues through higher data revenues, which are driven by OTT use.